The role of logistics in the world is difficult to overestimate. It directly relates to supply chain management. It is no coincidence that the program of the II International Conference «International transport and transit corridors: interconnection and development — 2023», recently held in the country, included topics of cooperation of the public and private organizations of Turkmenistan with foreign colleagues.
This follows from the analytical article by Allaberdi Ilyasov, Doctor of Technical Sciences, a columnist of the CentralAsia.news. He emphasized that international trade is directly related to logistics systems, since it is impossible to imagine how goods without organization of transportation got into the countries of Eurasia or from one continent to another. Now most of the carriers and operators organizing the entire transportation process are private companies. But at the same time, the state plays a huge role in this process, since it is impossible to solve a number of issues related to the organization of transportation without the intervention of state structures.
The main link of trade
Transport and transit corridors are the main link in international trade. Logistics is a huge number of companies that undertake the obligation to transport goods from one point to another. These can also be organizations for the production of certain products that have their own logistics departments. For example, logistics plays a huge role in global corporations known throughout the world for their products. Typically, they develop a product in one country, manufacture it in a second country, and a third country is responsible for bringing this product to the whole world. This pattern of work makes it clear that continuous global supply chain management is needed for international business chains.
The global supply chain in this case is included in various countries and elements of the process, which can be constantly monitored in real time. In simple terms, the prefabricated part must be transported on time to the manufacturer, in turn, the developer assembles the product to the end and sends it to the consumer. The logistics development market is one of the most active in the world today. The average share of GDP in developed countries is about 13-14%. It can be seen that transport companies and transport logistics bring large profits to the state. For example, the share of GDP in Ireland is approximately 14,1%, in Singapore and Hong Kong — 13,8% each, in Germany 13%, in Russia the data is not much less, it’s 12,2%. In total, the global transport logistics market accounts for approximately 2,7 trillion dollars.
Innovative logistics is an integral part of the modern economy. Today, the world lives in a time when the digital revolution is taking place everywhere. This whole process is a combination of various technologies and the creation of the most inconspicuous boundaries between the physical and digital spheres. The innovations, including digital technologies, have greatly changed the direction and development of business, the production of goods and services that are used constantly. And this promising trend has significantly affected the supply chain of goods to the consumer.
Continuous development will eventually lead to the fact that a significant part of logistics processes will become half automatic and IT solutions for logistics will become commonplace in all companies and their work. Digital logistics is the search, storage and method of information transfer, as well as technologies that ensure the identification and forecasting of needs, optimization of routes, directions of material and information flows, including reducing the time of existence in supply chains. It is digitalization that is the factor that opens up new opportunities in logistics: acceleration, change, restructuring of the business model, provision of an expanded range of services.
Logic of digitalization
As the world develops, new technologies come. Each sphere is being improved. This stimulates the development of the corresponding directions, which means that the world is moving into a digital reality. The 21st century requires the use of high technologies, even in road construction. Their coating has its own development and history, which bear such names as stone, crushed stone, sand, wood, and later asphalt can be observed. At different times, the surface of the road corresponded to its time. Today, a smart road is a single concept that includes various technologies for managing road transport. The site contains many elements that can help drivers and pedestrians through a network of mechanisms.
These elements consist of such devices as video cameras, navigation devices, weather sensors, electronic road signs, road markings, motion sensors, traffic control, traffic light and lighting control systems, and parking meters. The collected data allows you to create maximum safety during the movement of vehicles and to intelligently manage traffic flows. All violations are immediately recorded, which allows drivers and pedestrians to be more responsible. The regular improvement of road safety is the main task for the development and improvement of roads.
Large number of countries are concerned about this problem, creating their own developments to solve the current problem. For example, the Netherlands decided to conduct a small experiment. They were able to develop and supply a certain section of the road with LED lamps. The lamps need only solar energy to charge, when the car starts to drive up, they automatically light up, illuminating the way for the driver. This development made it possible to offload worker services, thanks to the lamps, the need for laying electrical cables was eliminated, and savings on electricity increased.
In addition to LED lamps, the developers also took care of the coating. The road surface has a special fluorescent marking, it charges all day, and then shines all night. The roadside is equipped with additional markings in the form of drawings depicting snowflakes. When the temperature drops, the snowflakes begin to glow, which provides the driver with a hint about the onset of ice. Scientists in Israel came to the conclusion that the era of cars powered by electricity is close and every year there will be more and more owners of such vehicles. An innovative proposal was the development of a road with which cars can be recharged while driving. The car will take the energy that a special coating produces.
But scientists from America are proposing a road project with a solar power plant. Their plan is to replace conventional road surfaces with solar panels, on top of which there will be a transparent, heavy-duty glass-based material. Thanks to its properties, the coating will be able to withstand heavy loads under the weight of cars. In winter, the road is able to function as well as in summer, since heating is built into it, independently cleaning it from snow and ice. Road signs are interactive and are also controlled from the road.
The composition of the roadway will be made of three layers. The first is a heavy-duty layer, it protects the solar panels from any damage and weather conditions, including being able to withstand the load exerted on it by transport. The second is the electronic layer, it consists of microprocessors and LED backlights. The task of the third and last layer is to transfer excess energy to external consumers. Speaking of other countries and their progress towards smart roads, it is worth mentioning Finland. This country has gone further than those described above. Finland already has an active smart road on which various engineering solutions are being tested. It was created in 2017, when a 10-kilometer section of route 21 in the Arctic north of the country was equipped with sensors.
The safety of this road will increase by 70 percent compared to the current situation. On such a section of the road, scientists try to test all possible technologies as much as possible. There are constant temperature fluctuations in this area, and car owners have repeatedly suffered due to the formation of ice and fog. The solution to the fog problem was fairly simple. In order to get rid of ice, it is planned to install heating of the roadbed on the road section, but not over the entire surface, but only along the track, which will reduce the number of heating elements and reduce the power consumption of the entire road as a whole.
Export potential of the oil and gas industry
The prospects for international economic relations and foreign trade of Turkmenistan determine the growth in the volume of processed cargo flows. All existing and newly created large transport hubs of our state play an important role in servicing the corresponding flows. Transport corridors are of great importance for the joint work of our state with other countries, the development of the transport industry in solving social and economic problems. Turkmenistan is actively working on the formation of multimodal transport and transit corridors, and this work has a beneficial effect on the development of trade and economic relations at the regional and international levels.
That is why the organization of logistics in the oil and gas industry requires a complex, often unique, approach to building a supply chain. For example, the geographical location of the Seydi Oil Refinery increases the capacity and range of products and expands the opportunities for the effective implementation of the transit and transport potential of Turkmenistan, its interaction in the energy and communication sectors of the Eurasian continent and integration into the system of modern international economic relations.
Turkmenistan can become a center for the development of the international investment business of Asia for the sale of petroleum products. The stable and reliable Asian region is rapidly developing in all sectors of industry and agriculture, and therefore Asian countries experience a daily growing need for oil products. Increasing the export of products made of hydrocarbon raw materials that are in demand on world markets with access to the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean, using the developed transport and transit corridors of Turkmenistan, is the order of the day.