In an interview to CentralAsia.news, a well-known Turkmen scientist, doctor of technical sciences Allaberdi Ilyasov spoke about the paramount importance of a rational attitude to the natural institution of the earth, the breadwinner and shelter of mankind.
«Ecological crisis», «environmental catastrophe» have become known concepts, therefore, at present, specialists from various industries and world public organizations pay great attention to environmental problems.
The concern of people about the state of their habitat is natural, especially against the background of ongoing cataclysms, both natural and man-made. One of the global problems of mankind is the constantly deteriorating state of its environment.
The active interaction of man and nature has led to ecosystem disturbances, many of which are irreversible. Further rash use of natural resources will lead to a catastrophe on a planetary scale.
In this regard, considering the state of the fuel and energy complex as the main polluter of the environment and, in particular, its main component, the oil and gas industry, it is important to note the emergence of serious environmental problems of both local and global significance.
System of equal positions
The theories and concepts developed in the 80s of the last century, aimed at combining the requirements of ecology and economics, providing for the environmentally safe sustainable development of society, are receiving more and more attention. In those years, the World Commission on Environment and Development (1983) was created. In 1987, after the approval by the UN General Assembly, the expression «sustainable development» close to the concept of «environmental development» came into use.
This is a model of socio-economic development, in which the satisfaction of the vital needs of present and future generations is achieved. In 1992, in Rio de Janeiro, at the UN Conference on Environmental Protection and Development, 179 countries of the world signed a declaration defining a coordinated policy to ensure sustainable development and conservation of the biosphere.
The main purpose of the environmental role of the state is to ensure a scientifically based correlation of the environmental and economic interests of society, while creating the necessary guarantees for the implementation of the constitutional human right to a favorable natural environment and the guarantee of the necessary conditions for the implementation of industrial, economic and other activities.
These tasks are solved in the process of interaction between society and nature in the forms of nature management, environmental protection and sustainable environmental safety. This course of events must be countered by an effective environmental policy, new environmental thinking.
Awareness of responsibility
Currently, there are many discussions on environmental issues, and this proves that humanity has increased awareness of the responsibility for the conservation of nature and its rational use.
But, from awareness to correct «environmentally safe» behavior, there is a long way to go, which will be passed only if we, and first of all specialists, begin to better understand the existing problems and at the same time learn to recognize the complex relationships between the surrounding nature and the development of society. And in this direction we will strive for the right decisions. The necessary process of transforming ecological and economic thinking and action will require not only a sustainable economy, but also a strong force of moral conviction.
It is these factors that ensure the observance of dynamic development in the «society-nature» system without compromising the fundamental parameters of the biosphere and without jeopardizing the ability of future generations to satisfy their needs.
The growing scale of industrial and economic activity leads to an increase in chemical pollution of the biosphere, which causes not only direct damage to it, but also a number of new processes that destroy the environment. Many chemical processes in the biosphere are caused by anthropogenic interference in the environment.
Thus, chemistry, biochemistry and chemical ecology are of particular importance in protecting the environment from pollution. However, humanity should hurry with the implementation of environmental conservation programs at all levels of development of nature and human life. There is no time to think about problems for a long time, because the realization of what is happening came very late.
Creating the products necessary for its existence, which are absent in nature, mankind uses various open-ended technological processes for the transformation of natural substances. The final products and wastes of these processes are in most cases not raw materials for another technological cycle and are lost, polluting the environment.
Mankind transforms animate and inanimate nature much faster than their evolutionary restoration takes place. The consumption of oil and gas is incomparable, for example, with the rate of their formation. At present, humanity is in a period of over-intensive use of environmental resources — the consumption of resources exceeds their growth, which inevitably leads to their depletion.
Reckless use of natural resources will eventually lead to a catastrophe on a planetary scale. So, for example, the world gene pool is depleted and destroyed, moreover, species diversity is being violated faster and faster.
Now about 20 million species of flora and fauna live on Earth, but they also become victims of an unfavorable environment. The technical civilization of modernity has generated a lot of environmental problems. This is, first of all, the destruction of plants and animals, deforestation, reduction of mineral resources, pollution of the oceans.
Just one example. Without water, people will die out just as without air, but garbage is still a global problem for mankind. Garbage litters not only land, but also water expanses. Chemical waste is dumped into the ocean, causing the death of animals, fish and plankton, the surface of huge areas is covered with an oil film, and non-degradable synthetic waste turns into garbage islands.
In short, this is not just environmental pollution, but a real disaster. However, the main environmental problems are related to the World Ocean, mineral resources, plants, animals and forests. But it is important not only what environmental problems humanity faces, but also what consequences this can lead to. Violation of the natural biocenosis and depletion of reserves that have been accumulating for millions of years will definitely lead to the extinction of mankind.
The main source of the economy
The oil and gas industry is the main component for the global economy. But in many countries of the world this industry is in a state of deep crisis. What is the reason and what are the prospects for the development of the main source of the world economy?
If the exploitation of fields is carelessly continued, coupled with large losses during transportation and irrational processing, then the future of the oil and gas industry on a planetary scale seems very bleak.
Even today, the decline in production rates is on average 12-15% per year, which is fraught with a complete collapse of a strategically important industry for any state. And then the further extensive development of the oil and gas industry is no longer possible, since the main factor in environmental pollution in the oil and gas industry is the irrational use of natural resources.
This primarily occurs during exploration, drilling, oil and gas construction, production, collection, preparation, processing and transportation of hydrocarbons.
And the answer, how to reanimate the industry, is obvious — an increase in environmental safety, and a decrease in the negative impact of oil and gas production, environmental monitoring of oil and gas infrastructure, land reclamation, the economic efficiency of environmental measures in the development of an oil and gas field, legislative support for the protection of nature and subsoil.
Strategy of Turkmenistan
Today, the environmental agenda in the world is more intensive than ever. Key environmental risks are concentrated in the production, mining and processing industries.
Ensuring the environmental safety of production and reducing the impact on the environment are the key factors for sustainable development and competitiveness of enterprises, the basis for successful international cooperation. And the leading enterprises of the global oil and gas industry objectively assess the potential environmental risks from their activities and take steps to prevent negative impacts and ensure environmental safety.
In this regard, the strategic goal of Turkmenistan in the field of environmental policy is to solve problems that ensure environmentally oriented economic growth, conservation of natural resources, as well as strengthening the rule of law in the field of environmental protection. Therefore, the ongoing state environmental policy is in harmony with the policy of stable development of the world community, the protection of the world’s ecosystems.
In the recent history of the country, a number of laws in the field of nature protection have been adopted. These are the laws «On Ecological Safety», «On Nature Protection», «On Ecological Expertise», «On Chemical Safety», «On Environmental Audit» and other regulatory documents.
Problems and solutions
From the beginning of the twentieth century, the first programs aimed primarily at saving the environment began to appear. However, by the end of the century it became clear that humanity needed more radical and effective measures.
In recent decades, humanity has realized the danger of the current environmental situation in the world and has begun an active struggle to protect and restore our nature.
In addition to existing projects and programs to preserve the environment, scientists are already working on ambitious projects for the future, including the construction of complete waste disposal plants, the construction of thermal power plants operating on Helium-3, the worldwide phase-out of gasoline engines and the transition to electric vehicles and the use of cold nuclear fusion for an environmentally friendly method of obtaining energy from water.