Professor Murad Khaitov spoke about numerous fateful achievements of sovereign Turkmenistan.
This year Turkmenistan celebrates the 30th anniversary of the proclamation of its independence. It became an important starting point for a new chapter in the history of the Turkmen people and state. Over the years of independence, Turkmenistan, as a sovereign state, has achieved significant success in the economy, science, education, culture, and other spheres of life.
In an interview to CentralAsia.news Doctor of Law, Professor, Honored Lawyer, and Honorary Elder of Turkmenistan Murad Khaitov spoke about the formation of sovereign Turkmenistan.
Self-awareness shaped by history
Turkmen history starts from the earliest antiquity. Over a long history, the Turkmen people have built many states. The striving for statehood is one of the distinctive features of the Turkmen nation, whose self-consciousness was formed by the nature of an integral sociocultural organism. Historically, the state development of Turkmenistan consists of various periods: early, pre-revolutionary, Soviet, and the period of independence. Each of them has its characteristics, differences, and is subdivided into appropriate stages.
They cannot be considered in isolation from each other, since they are connected. These periods give us a general idea of the peculiarities of the formation of a modern sovereign and independent state Turkmenistan.
The formation of national state-building also consists of certain stages. The division into periods (stages) in development is very conditional. The fact is that it is difficult with filigree precision to delimit the boundaries of one period and the transition to another. They are interconnected and reflect the characteristics of each stage of the general historical process.
For our people, the process of forming statehood is associated with the peculiarities of each period of development of Turkmenistan. They are associated with significant reforms, the evolution of the state structure, and other major factors that significantly affect the course of the historical development of the state, the future of its people.
The centuries-old dream of Turkmens
Turkmenistan has entered a new era. It is fundamentally different from the previous periods of state development of Turkmenistan. Today the country celebrates the 30th anniversary of the proclamation of its independence.
The process of gaining independence is long for many peoples, including the Turkmen people. Dovletmammad Azadi, Magtymguly Pyragy, Seyitnazar Seidi and our other great compatriots dreamed about it and dedicated part of their works to the subject. As noted by domestic scholars-philologists, in their works the Turkmen classics glorified the unity and the idea of unification. After gaining independence, the centuries-old dream of Turkmens of a free life came true.
The proclamation of state independence was preceded by the adoption of the Declaration of the Sovereignty of Turkmenistan on August 22, 1990. It rightfully occupies a significant place in national history. The declaration allowed Turkmenistan to acquire sovereign rights, independent domestic and foreign policy, proclaimed the authority of Turkmenistan to land, natural resources, oil, gas, and other minerals.
Sovereignty determined the ability of the people, as the bearer of the supreme state power, to independently form and implement their will. The exclusive property of Turkmenistan was proclaimed for the first time. The earth, its bowels, waters, flora, and fauna were declared the property of the people. Based on the provisions of the declaration, enterprises and organizations of union subordination, located on the territory of the republic, passed into the jurisdiction of Turkmenistan. This transition had the main goal of creating the necessary conditions for the republic to follow the economic interests of Turkmenistan.
Realization of opportunities given by sovereignty
On October 11, 1990, the Law of the Turkmen SSR «On the Establishment of a Presidential Form of Government in the Turkmen SSR and Amendments and Additions to the Constitution of the Turkmen SSR» was adopted, and on October 27, 1990, a nationwide presidential election was held. All this determined the further directions and prospects of sustainable economic and social development of the country, increasing the well-being of the people, a smooth transition to new institutions of power, the system of state-building and management.
Developing the provisions of the declaration, the most important national plans and programs were adopted, measures to improve the living standards of the population and modernize public administration were initiated. For the first time, the Declaration proclaimed human rights as natural rights, changed the methodological approaches to determining the status of a person and a citizen. It was with the proclamation of sovereignty that the revival of the historical institutions of state-building of the Turkmen people, the rise of civil consciousness and its political expression started.
The existence of real rights allowed the Turkmen state to form a fundamentally different political, economic, and legal system. New social relations have been formed. State sovereignty in the full sense of the word has created an opportunity to revive the national spiritual and material values of the Turkmen people rooted in millennia.
The opportunities given by sovereignty were the political, economic, and legal prerequisites for the formation of state independence of Turkmenistan. As a result of a popular referendum on October 26, 1991, Turkmenistan has been proclaimed an independent state. Officially, the political will of the people of Turkmenistan was enshrined in the Constitutional Law of Turkmenistan «On Independence and Fundamentals of State Structure» of October 27, 1991. In 2018, by the decision of the parliament, the celebration of the Independence Day of Turkmenistan was postponed to September 27.
Economic «renaissance» of the ancient land
Over the years of independence, Turkmenistan has achieved qualitatively new frontiers in many sectors of the national economy. Currently, the country is implementing large-scale programs aimed at increasing the economic potential of the state and raising the standard of living of the people. A policy to transfer the country’s economy to market relations is being implemented.
Naturally, the country has chosen its own evolutionary path of development. Therefore, the economy moved to market relations smoothly, while maintaining the social security of the population. New industries were created practically from scratch. Fuel and energy, textile, processing, construction, industrial industries, innovative methods, and digital technologies were introduced. Improving the well-being of the people, ensuring high rates of development of the country is the main goal of reforms in the socio-economic and socio-political life of the country.
A pragmatic foreign policy perspective
In a short period by historical standards, Turkmenistan has also achieved significant success in the establishment and development of foreign policy relations. Over the years of independence, Turkmenistan has managed to take a worthy place in the community of states of the world.
On March 2, 1992, Turkmenistan was elected a UN member, twice on December 12, 1995, and on June 3, 2015, based on resolutions of the General Assembly of the United Nations, it was recognized as a permanently neutral state. Thus, since the formation of the UN, Turkmenistan has become the only neutral state in the world recognized by the international community of states.
During the years of independence, the foreign policy strategy of Turkmenistan has been recognized by many world structures and states. The international authority and initiatives of the President of Turkmenistan Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov have repeatedly received the support of the world community. Today, Turkmenistan reliably and stably deals with the transit of energy carriers to international markets. The state is actively working on the development of an international legal mechanism designed to provide guarantees for the reliability and safety of energy supplies.
Perfect legal system
All ongoing programs and achievements are based on the provisions of the Constitution — the Basic Law of Turkmenistan. At the initiative of the head of state, a phased constitutional reform was carried out in the country in 2008-2020. Each stage of the constitutional reform had its own goals and objectives. Together they made significant changes and additions to many spheres of the state and public life of the country, fundamentally changed the political and national legal system. The 2020 constitutional reform introduced significant changes to the parliamentary system of Turkmenistan and marked the transition to a bicameral structure.
Having crossed the threshold of the 30th anniversary of independence, the Turkmen people entered a new phase of their national history. Over the years of independence, the country has adopted new national programs for the development of various areas of the state and public life, programs of socio-economic development for the long term. Over the years, the national legislation has also been significantly updated, the latest laws and other regulatory legal acts have been adopted. They largely contribute to the development of state and public institutions, increase the economic and social security of the population of our country.
For three decades of progressive development, the country has achieved serious success in strengthening statehood, economic growth, and raising the standard of living of the population. Turkmenistan makes a worthy contribution to the efforts of the international community to combat the challenges of our time affecting the whole world.
Turkmenistan celebrates its main national holiday — Independence Day as a modern, competitive state with a serious economic and legal foundation, humanitarian potential, successfully carrying out large-scale transformations in many spheres of state and public life.